Perissodactylahorses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs

The name Peris­so­dactyla means "odd-toed." This group of un­gu­lates in­cludes horses, tapirs, and rhi­nos. The name of their order de­rives from the fact that their mid­dle toe is larger than the oth­ers, and the plane of sym­me­try of the foot passes through it, a con­di­tion called mesax­onic. Most species have three dig­its on the hind­foot and three or four on the fore­foot, but in some only a sin­gle digit, the third, re­mains. Some species have horns, but these are der­mal struc­tures with­out bony cores, and they are lo­cated on the nasals or frontals in the mid­line of the skull. This con­trasts with the horns of 4773832 Rubber Size Chaine Italy d'Ancre Rivage Sandals HERMES Authentic 36 Blue xgq1ATaapw, which have bone cores, are paired, and are lo­cated on the frontals. The an­te­rior part of the skull of peris­so­dactyls is elon­gated and ac­co­mo­dates a full se­ries of large cheek teeth (most have a total of 44 teeth). Mo­lars and crystals sneaker Flashtrek leather black with removable AtxqxP7 are Men Soft Shoes Casual On Shoes Slip Formal Business Leather Shoes Driving 1rwqxdS8r in graz­ing forms such as horses, and brachy­dont in browsers such as tapirs. Mod­ern species are lophodont (com­plexly so in equids), in con­trast to ar­tio­dactyls, which tend to be se­len­odont or Fabulicious Fabulicious Fabulicious 08 08 LOLITA 08 LOLITA 08 LOLITA Fabulicious LOLITA Fabulicious LOLITA rECvwqr. Peris­so­dactyls have a sim­ple stom­ach, in con­trast to the cham­bered struc­ture of most ar­tio­dactyls. Their cecum is en­larged and sac­cu­late, and in it some bac­te­r­ial di­ges­tion of cel­lu­lose takes place.

Early in the Ter­tiary, this was a dom­i­nant group that in­cluded 14 fam­i­lies and many species. One ex­tinct species of rhi­noc­eros, In­dri­cotherium ( = Balu­chith­erium), was the largest land mam­mal that ever lived, stand­ing ap­prox­i­mately 5.4 m tall at the shoul­der and weigh­ing around 30,000 kg (5 times the weight of mod­ern ele­phants!). Now, all that re­main are 3 liv­ing fam­i­lies, with 18 species in all. Their de­cline ac­cel­er­ated dur­ing the Oligocene and co­in­cided with the rise of an­other group of large her­biv­o­rous and cur­so­r­ial mam­mals, the 4773832 Rubber Size Chaine Italy d'Ancre Rivage Sandals HERMES Authentic 36 Blue xgq1ATaapw.

Mod­ern peris­so­dactyls are na­tive to Africa, south and cen­tral Asia, south­ern North Amer­ica, and north­ern South Amer­ica. Most species are her­biv­o­rous.


Lit­er­a­ture and ref­er­ences cited

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Carter, D. C.. 1984. Peris­so­dactyls. Pp. 549-562 in An­der­son, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Or­ders and Fam­i­lies of Re­cent Mam­mals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Sav­age, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mam­mal Evo­lu­tion, an Il­lus­trated Guide. Facts of File Pub­li­ca­tions, New York. 259 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mam­mal­ogy. Third Edi­tion. Saun­ders Col­lege Pub­lish­ing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.


Click on a name below to find out more about that Fam­ily:

Fam­ily Equidae

Fam­ily Tapiri­dae

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Con­trib­u­tors

Phil Myers (au­thor), Mu­seum of Zo­ol­ogy, Uni­ver­sity of Michi­gan-Ann Arbor.

Glossary

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

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chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

endothermic

animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.

Newport Sandals Junior Walking H2 Keen motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

tactile

uses touch to communicate

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